Skin structure, functions & dermatomes

*Read from lecture notes Important key points Epidermis (ectoderm) Stratum corneum S. lucidum only in thick skin (sole, palms) S. granulosum 1st layer that has nuclei cuts off nutrition to cells above S. spinosum thickest layer together with S. basale = Malpighian layer S. basale cell renewal Dermis (mesoderm) Papillary Read more…

Muscles of the neck

Muscle groups of the neck Post-vertebral muscles Anterior vertebral muscles Lateral vertebral muscles Anterior neck muscles Superficial neck muscles _____________________________________________________________________ *Refer medical museum models Anterior vertebral muscles Muscles Rectus capitis anterior Longus capitis Longus colli Attachment base of the skull & bodies transverse processes of cervical upper 4 thoracic vertebrae Read more…

Muscles of the face & mastication

Muscles of facial expression Functions regulators of 3 openings eyes mouth nose Sphincters (circular), dilators (radial) Facial expressions: secondary effects of their contractions Supplied by 7th cranial nerve Developed from 2nd pharyngeal arch Represent panniculus carnosus Actions Frontalis look upwards without moving head Corrugator supercilii frowing vertical wrinkling of forehead Read more…

Walking & movements of the foot

Walking complex movement that produces locomotion Gait scientific analysis of the pattern of walking Locomotion Definition rhythmic displacement of body parts that maintains the animal in constant forward progression starting stopping changes in speed alterations in direction modifications for changes in slope Basic requirements of walking continuous support against gravity Read more…

Muscles of lower limb & lumbosacral plexus

*Read from written notes before reading from this post Psoas major origin: transverse process of lumbar vertebrae intervertebral disc Insertion pass behind inguinal ligament Iliopsoas tendon inserted into lesser trochanter of femur Action flexes thigh on trunk at hip joint flexes trunk on thigh Nerve supply L2, L3 roots Quadriceps Read more…

Vertebral Column

Vertebral column Components Intervertebral disc Vertebrae Cervical –7 Thoracic –12 Lumbar – 5 Sacral – 5 Coccygeal – 4 Curvatures In the foetus & newborn C shaped with an anterior concavity In adults, 4 curvatures cervical (secondary) appears when infant raises his head thoracic (primary) lumbar (secondary) appears when infant Read more…