• Walking
    • complex movement that produces locomotion
  • Gait
    • scientific analysis of the pattern of walking

Locomotion

  • Definition
    • rhythmic displacement of body parts that maintains the animal in constant forward progression
      • starting
      • stopping
      • changes in speed
      • alterations in direction
      • modifications for changes in slope
  • Basic requirements of walking
    • continuous support against gravity
    • alternating periodic movement of lower limbs
    • motor control
      • to sequence multiple events
      • while transferring body weight from 1 limb to another

Gait cycle

  • Fundamental events
    • foot strike
    • Opposite toe-off
    • Opposite foot strike
    • Toe-off
  • Phases
    • Stance
      • period of the cycle when foot is in contact with the ground
      • Periods
        • initial double limb support
        • single limb support
        • second double limb support
    • Swing
      • period when the food is in the air
      • Periods
        • initial swing
        • mid swing
        • terminal swing
  • Full event
    • Initial contact (foot strike)
    • Opposite toe-off
    • Opposite initial contact (foot strike)
    • Toe-off
    • Foot clearance
    • Tibia vertical
    • Second foot strike

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Stance phase

  • Function
    • restores stability/balance
    • initiates progression
      • potential energy converted to kinetic energy
    • conserves energy

5 parts of stance phase

  • Initial contact (foot strike)
    • momentary event initiating period of stance
    • Actions
      • knee extended
      • ankle neutral
      • active muscles
        • hamstrings
        • ankle dorsiflexors
  • Loading response
    • Initial period of double limb support
    • Actions
      • knee flexed
      • ankle plantarflex (15 degrees)
        • energy converving mechanism
      • active muscles (maintain hip & knee stability)
        • quadriceps active
        • gluteal muscles active
  • Midstance
    • Single limb support
    • Actions
      • knee extended
      • ankle neutral
      • active muscles
        • triceps surae
          • control tibial advancement
          • prevent ankle from dorsiflexing due to body weight
  • Terminal stance
    • Single limb support
    • Actions
      • plantar flexion
        • causes forefoot axis for limb to pivot (forefoot rocker)
  • Pre-swing
    • Actions
      • knee flexed
        • for toe clearance & limb advancement
      • ankle plantarflexed
      • toes dorsiflex (metatarsophalangeal joints)
        • toe still on the ground

Swing phases

3 parts of swing phase

  • Initial swing
    • Action
      • thighs move anteriorly
      • Knees flexed
      • ankle dorsiflexes
        • for foot clearance
  • Mid-swing
    • Action
      • Feet adjacent to tibia vertical
      • limb advancement & foot clearance
      • tibia in vertical position
  • Terminal swing
    • Action
      • knee extension –> neutral
      • deceleration by
        • hamstrings
        • gluteus maximus
      • active muscles
        • quadriceps
        • dorsiflexors

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Gait analysis

  • 3 deviations
    • speeds up & slows down slightly
    • Rises & falls a few cm
    • Weaves side to side slightly

Movements

  • Pelvis
    • lists
      • side to side axis
    • rotates
      • vertical axis
    • undulates
      • anteroposterior axis
  • Lower limbs
    • displaced in all 3 planes
  • Knee
    • flexion
  • Shoulders
    • rotate & swing out of phase

Balance

  • When feet are fully extended
    • hips must rotate along the axis of the spine
  • To keep balance
    • shoulders swing in the opposite direction
  • From the front
    • spine is relatively straight
  • From the top
    • hips & shoulders twist in opposite direction to maintain balance

Movements of foot

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