Local & General anaesthetics

*Read written notes. Local anaesthetics – Musculoskeletal system General anaesthetics – Nervous system

Drugs acting on neuromuscular junction

*Refer written notes

Sedative hypnotics & anticonvulsants

*Refer written notes

NSAIDs & drugs in arthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) General Degenerative joint disease No known cure Therapeutic objectives reduce pain improve joint mobility limit functional impairment Management Patient education lose weight lessen burden of weight-bearing joints exercise Non-medicinal & rebilitative exercises range-of-motion muscle-strengthening braces, orthotics, assistive devices appropriate footwear occupational therapy Pharmacotherapy Oral NSAIDs COX2 selective inhibitors glucosamine Intra-articular injection Glucocorticoids Hyaluronic…

Antidepressive & antipsychotics

Neuronal regulation Neurotransmitters GABA Glutamate Neurohormones oxytocin ADH Neuromodulators CO2 ammonia steroids adenosine prostaglandins Neuromediators cAMP cGMP inositol phosphates Neurotrophic factors brain derived neurotrophic factors When drugs for major depressive disorder (MDD)/ psychoses are administered There is prompt binding of drugs to receptor but clinical effect is delayed & slow to develop Actual drug effect…

Neurotransmitters & Neuropharmacology

Neurotramission in the CNS Hierarchical systems clear anatomic distribution large myelinated rapidly conducting fibres control major sensory & motor functions Major excitatory neurotransmitter aspartate glutamate inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA Glycine Diffuses systems broadly distributed divergent axons branched and synapses with many cells act diffusely far away from site of release produce slow and long lasting &…

Prescribing in pregnancy & lactation

Read from Dr. Wong Pei Se’s notes Diseases that require treatment during pregnancy Thromboembolic disease Hypertension Diabetes mellitus STD Recurrent pregnancy loss URTI Asthma Epilepsy Migraine Psychosis Depression/anxiety Common illness during pregnancy Nausea & vomiting abdominal bloating heartburn headache constipation Teratogens drugs, environmental hazards produces a characteristic set of malformations exerting it’s effects during the…

Insulin & oral treatment of Diabetes Mellitus (X)

Incomplete notes. For more info, read up David Chong’s lecture. Insulin types Older types Soluble quick onset short duration NPH, ‘Lente’ & biphasic intermediate onset intermediate duration ‘Ultralente’ slow onset long duration Newer types (recombinant analogues) Lispro Aspart Glulisine slow onset long duration Mimics pulsed secretion (give with meals) Glargine Detemir long duration Mimics basal…

Antithyroid Drugs

Recap: Thyroid gland produces 2 iodinated hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) T4 (tetraiodothyronine) They promote metabolism, growth & development. Both hormone need iodine, the iodine binds to thyrosine in the thyroglobulin (colloid) to produce T3/T4. This process is called organification. Hyperthyroidsim: Graves disease Increase TSH receptor stimulation Increase production of T3 & T4 by thyroid gland Types…

Adverse Drug Effects & Drug Interactions

Read Lecture Notes by Achike!