Walking & movements of the foot

Walking complex movement that produces locomotion Gait scientific analysis of the pattern of walking Locomotion Definition rhythmic displacement of body parts that maintains the animal in constant forward progression starting stopping changes in speed alterations in direction modifications for changes in slope Basic requirements of walking continuous support against gravity Read more…

Higher functions of the nervous system

Integrated function Cerebral cortex Voluntary movement Language Language area= left hemisphere Wernicke’s area superior & posterior portion of the temporal lobe LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION comprehension of written words, sounds, signs Wernicke’s aphasia can speak, but makes no sense eg. says “chicken’ when pictures of chairs Broca’s area Frontal lobe LANGUAGE EXPRESSION Read more…

Physiology of sleep & consciousness

Definitions: SLEEP reversible behavioural state of unresponsiveness & perpetual dissociation from the environment CONSCIOUSNESS: Perception of sensations, voluntary initiation & control of movement, capabilities associated with higher mental processing Stages of consciousness _____________________________________________________________________ Sleep Not a period of absolute rest some parts of the brain are more active during sleep Read more…

Physiology of vision

*Read foundation 1 notes Visual system Eye image formation & phototransduction Visual pathway tranmission of nerve impulses Visual cortex occipital lobe of cerebral cortex primary visual receiving area: sides of the calcarine fissure visual processing & perception occurs here Stimulus Light visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum Sensory organ Eye Read more…

Hearing & Equilibrium

*Read foundation 1 notes. Hearing: Organ of hearing organ of Corti Sensory receptor cochlea duct nerve cochlear nerve Equilibrium: Dancing with music dynamic equilibrium Organ of equilibrium dynamic: crista ampularis (hair cells + cupula) of the semicircular canals vestibular nerve static: maculae Common characteristics – receptor for hearing & equilibrium Read more…

Control of posture & postural reflexes

Functions of posture Static postural reflexes maintenance of the body in an upright, balanced position Phasic postural reflexes provision of a stable background for voluntary activity Equilibrium: maintenance of a normal posture with good alignment Posture serves 3 main behavioural functions: Antigravity (STATIC) support head and body against gravity Alignment Read more…

Coordination of movement

Types of movements Unintentional – involuntary Intentional – voluntary Purpose of movements Protection/maintenance of posture To execute a voluntary movement in response to a thought/ idea or external stimulus [ from eyes, ears, touch, etc] Posture provides background for movement Movement starts with one posture and ends with another Coordination Read more…