Development of Urinary Tract & Common Abnormalities

Urinary Tract Development

Evolution of Kidney Development (3 stages) Note the image: pronephric system are at the superior (cervical region) portion, mesonephric system at the middle portion and the metanephric system at the inferior (sacral region) portion of the embryo) Mesonephric duct opens into the urogenital sinus. Yellow: endodermal (gut) Blue: intermediate mesoderm (kidney & genital) Each vertebrate’s … Read more

>IMUEOS gets around 15k uniques per month! (For readers, sponsors and advertisers)

> Hi everyone! It’s been sometime since I’ve updated this medical blog. I hope it has served you well in your medical studies as much as it did for myself. Good news, I have completed my phase 1 medical studies (MBBS) or equivalent to USMLE Step 1. Due to my hectic schedule, I haven’t managed … Read more

Behavioural response to exercise

Topics covered: Problems with sedentary lifestyle Benefits of changing lifestyle enhance daily function maintain reserve capacities prevent diseases diabetes osteoarthritis heart disease decrease effects of age and chronic diseases Hazards of strenuous exercise heart attack amenorrhea osteoporosis infertility suppresses immune system (when already sick) back & shoulder pain dehydration hyperthermia (overheat – heat stroke) injury … Read more

Impairment & disability

Impairment any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function Disability any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being Handicap disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or a disability, that … Read more

Pathology of peripheral neuropathies

Peripheral Neuropathy

Tests for peripheral neuropathy Electromyography measures electrical impulses in muscle at rest & when contracting Differentiates between muscle and nerve disorders Nerve conduction velocity assess the degree of damage in the larger nerve fibres due to myelin loss Slow transmission –> myelin damage Decrease strength of impulse -> axonal degeneration Nerve biopsy invasive sural nerves … Read more

Leprosy & Poliomyelitis


Definition A chronic bacterial disease of the skin, peripheral nerves and the upper airway One of the most feared diseases Causal organism M. Leprae Early stage painless depigmented patch Differential diagnosis Tinea vesicolor Pityriasis rosea Birth mark depigmentation Granuloma multiforme Psoriasis Contact dermatitis Avitaminosis B Neurofibromatosis Scleroderma Xathomatosis Epidemiology Infectious agent: Mycobacterium leprae acid fast … Read more