Skin structure, functions & dermatomes

*Read from lecture notes Important key points Epidermis (ectoderm) Stratum corneum S. lucidum only in thick skin (sole, palms) S. granulosum 1st layer that has nuclei cuts off nutrition to cells above S. spinosum thickest layer together with S. basale = Malpighian layer S. basale cell renewal Dermis (mesoderm) Papillary layer Collagen type 3 Meissners’s corpuscles: touch Krauses’s end bulb: cold Free nerve endings: pain Reticular layer Collagen type 1 Muscle cells Pacinian corpuscles: pressure Read more…

Muscles of the neck

Muscle groups of the neck Post-vertebral muscles Anterior vertebral muscles Lateral vertebral muscles Anterior neck muscles Superficial neck muscles _____________________________________________________________________ *Refer medical museum models Anterior vertebral muscles Muscles Rectus capitis anterior Longus capitis Longus colli Attachment base of the skull & bodies transverse processes of cervical upper 4 thoracic vertebrae Nerve supply C1 – C6 Action flex head & neck Lateral vertebral muscles Muscles Rectus capitis lateralis Levator scapulae Anterior scalene Middle scalene Posterior scalene Read more…

Muscles of the face & mastication

Muscles of facial expression Functions regulators of 3 openings eyes mouth nose Sphincters (circular), dilators (radial) Facial expressions: secondary effects of their contractions Supplied by 7th cranial nerve Developed from 2nd pharyngeal arch Represent panniculus carnosus Actions Frontalis look upwards without moving head Corrugator supercilii frowing vertical wrinkling of forehead Orbicularis oculi tight closure of eyes Dilators of mouth smile widely Buccinator puffing mouth blowing forcefully Facial expressions Smiling & laughing zygomaticus major Grinning risorius Read more…

Walking & movements of the foot

Walking complex movement that produces locomotion Gait scientific analysis of the pattern of walking Locomotion Definition rhythmic displacement of body parts that maintains the animal in constant forward progression starting stopping changes in speed alterations in direction modifications for changes in slope Basic requirements of walking continuous support against gravity alternating periodic movement of lower limbs motor control to sequence multiple events while transferring body weight from 1 limb to another Gait cycle Fundamental events Read more…

Muscles of lower limb & lumbosacral plexus

*Read from written notes before reading from this post Psoas major origin: transverse process of lumbar vertebrae intervertebral disc Insertion pass behind inguinal ligament Iliopsoas tendon inserted into lesser trochanter of femur Action flexes thigh on trunk at hip joint flexes trunk on thigh Nerve supply L2, L3 roots Quadriceps   Adductor magnus pubic part obturator nerve   Ischial part: Hamstring Nerve supply: tibial part of sciatic nerve Arise from ischial tuberosity inserts below knee Read more…

Muscles of upper limb & brachial plexus

CREDITS TO DR. NILESH KUMAR MITRA (Anatomy lecturer – International Medical University). His lecture notes is one of the sources I use for my blog posts and he is the best anatomy lecturer I’ve ever known. His efforts to educate and guide medical students in IMU will always be appreciated, by myself and all my colleagues that he has taught. THANK YOU! *Read from written notes before reading from this post. Naming of muscles Location Read more…

Vertebral Column

Vertebral column Components Intervertebral disc Vertebrae Cervical –7 Thoracic –12 Lumbar – 5 Sacral – 5 Coccygeal – 4 Curvatures In the foetus & newborn C shaped with an anterior concavity In adults, 4 curvatures cervical (secondary) appears when infant raises his head thoracic (primary) lumbar (secondary) appears when infant stands sacral (primary) Parts of a typical vertebrae Vertebral body Vertebral arch pedicle lamina Transverse processes Spinous processes Superior & inferior articular processes (zygapophyses) Regional Read more…

Organisation of Peripheral Nervous System & Spinal Cord

Note: Important for OSPE & read up foundation 1! Peripheral nervous system Made up of nerve cell bodies nerve fibres cranial nerves spinal nerves Connects CNS with peripheral structure Function afferent (sensory) neuron carry impulse from sensory receptors to CNS efferent (motor) neuron carry information from CNS to muscles/glands Accessory nerve 2 parts cranial part spinal part arise from C5, C6 Injury is possible Spinal cord It is the major reflex centre & conduction pathway Read more…