Skin structure, functions & dermatomes

*Read from lecture notes Important key points Epidermis (ectoderm) Stratum corneum S. lucidum only in thick skin (sole, palms) S. granulosum 1st layer that has nuclei cuts off nutrition to cells above S. spinosum thickest layer together with S. basale = Malpighian layer S. basale cell renewal Dermis (mesoderm) Papillary Read more…

Muscles of the neck

Muscle groups of the neck Post-vertebral muscles Anterior vertebral muscles Lateral vertebral muscles Anterior neck muscles Superficial neck muscles _____________________________________________________________________ *Refer medical museum models Anterior vertebral muscles Muscles Rectus capitis anterior Longus capitis Longus colli Attachment base of the skull & bodies transverse processes of cervical upper 4 thoracic vertebrae Read more…

Muscles of the face & mastication

Muscles of facial expression Functions regulators of 3 openings eyes mouth nose Sphincters (circular), dilators (radial) Facial expressions: secondary effects of their contractions Supplied by 7th cranial nerve Developed from 2nd pharyngeal arch Represent panniculus carnosus Actions Frontalis look upwards without moving head Corrugator supercilii frowing vertical wrinkling of forehead Read more…

Muscles of lower limb & lumbosacral plexus

*Read from written notes before reading from this post Psoas major origin: transverse process of lumbar vertebrae intervertebral disc Insertion pass behind inguinal ligament Iliopsoas tendon inserted into lesser trochanter of femur Action flexes thigh on trunk at hip joint flexes trunk on thigh Nerve supply L2, L3 roots Quadriceps Read more…

Vertebral Column

Vertebral column Components Intervertebral disc Vertebrae Cervical –7 Thoracic –12 Lumbar – 5 Sacral – 5 Coccygeal – 4 Curvatures In the foetus & newborn C shaped with an anterior concavity In adults, 4 curvatures cervical (secondary) appears when infant raises his head thoracic (primary) lumbar (secondary) appears when infant Read more…

Ocular movements & visual reflexes

Muscles of the orbit Extraocular 4 rectus Superior rectus oculomotor nerve Inferior rectus oculomotor nerve Medial rectus oculomotor nerve Lateral rectus abducen nerve 2 oblique Superior oblique Inferior oblique Levator Palpebrae Superioris (LPS) Smooth muscles Superior tarsal Inferior tarsal Orbitalis Intraocular Sphincter pupillae Dilator pupillae Ciliaris Bony orbit of the Read more…

Middle Ear

General features of the ear 3 parts of the ear: External ear involved in hearing Anatomy: auricle: funnel shaped, elastic cartillage 3 parts: helix concha lobule external auditory meatus 2.5cm curved tube Outer 1/3: cartilage Inner 2/3: Bony (temporal bone) Modified sweat glands –> secrete cerumen prevents drying protects from Read more…

Cerebellar structure, function and vestibular disorder

Read written notes. Some images on cerebellum: Location of cerebellum: Largest part of hindbrain Occupies most of posterior cranial fossa Lies behind pons & medulla forming roof of 4th ventricle Separated from posterior part of cerebrum by tentorium cerebelli _____________________________________________________________________ Cerebral peduncles: Joined to the brain stem via: Superior cerebellar Read more…