Musculoskeletal System

Behavioural response to exercise

Topics covered: Problems with sedentary lifestyle Benefits of changing lifestyle enhance daily function maintain reserve capacities prevent diseases diabetes osteoarthritis heart disease decrease effects of age and chronic diseases Hazards of strenuous exercise heart attack amenorrhea osteoporosis infertility suppresses immune system (when already sick) back & shoulder pain dehydration hyperthermia (overheat – heat stroke) injury…

Impairment & disability

Impairment any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological or anatomical structure or function Disability any restriction or lack (resulting from an impairment) of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being Handicap disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from an impairment or a disability, that…

Local & General anaesthetics

*Read written notes. Local anaesthetics – Musculoskeletal system General anaesthetics – Nervous system

Drugs acting on neuromuscular junction

*Refer written notes

Major disorders of vertebral column

Read from OLIS – Week 5 (Station 3 & 4) Station 3 Station 4

Pathology of peripheral neuropathies

Tests for peripheral neuropathy Electromyography measures electrical impulses in muscle at rest & when contracting Differentiates between muscle and nerve disorders Nerve conduction velocity assess the degree of damage in the larger nerve fibres due to myelin loss Slow transmission –> myelin damage    Decrease strength of impulse -> axonal degeneration Nerve biopsy invasive sural nerves…

Leprosy & Poliomyelitis

Definition A chronic bacterial disease of the skin, peripheral nerves and the upper airway One of the most feared diseases Causal organism M. Leprae Early stage painless depigmented patch Differential diagnosis Tinea vesicolor Pityriasis rosea Birth mark depigmentation Granuloma multiforme Psoriasis Contact dermatitis Avitaminosis B Neurofibromatosis Scleroderma Xathomatosis Epidemiology Infectious agent: Mycobacterium leprae acid fast…

Degeneration & regeneration of peripheral nerves

Peripheral nerve injuries Due to Trauma acute compression Signs & symptoms Loss of motor function Loss of sensory function Pathology Demyelination/axonal degeneration Disruption of the sensory/motor function of the injured nerve Remyelination with axonal regeneration Reinnervation of the sensory receptors & muscle end plates Degenerative changes Axonal injury Degenerative changes at proximal & distal end…

Structure of peripheral nerves & nerve conduction

*Read from lecture notes.

Contraction of skeletal muscle

*Revise from foundation 1 notes. Read from lecture notes.