Read from Dr. Niraj’s notes. Summarise!

EARLY INFANT DEVELOPMENT

Developmental milestones

The 1st year

  • Newborn
    • grasps anything that touches palm (reflective)
    • head not in the middle
    • turn head to the side with difficulty when on belly
    • stands on leg briefly when held upright
    • cries at loud noises
    • listens to speech
  • 1 month
    • can lift head slightly when on belly
  • 2 months
    • appears more floppy
    • arms & legs not bent anymore
    • able to turn head
    • eyes follow object
  • 3 months
    • head in the middle
    • brings toy to middle of body
    • props self on forearms when on belly
    • no trunk control when sitting
    • toes curled when standing
    • begins cooing
    • recognizes mom’s voice
    • enjoys noisy toys
  • 4 months
    • update later
  • 5 months
    • update
  • 6 months
    • update
  • 7 months
    • update
  • 8 months
    • update
  • 9 months
    • update
  • 10 months
    • update
  • 11 months
    • update
  • 12 months
    • update

Vision

  • blurry
  • center visual field
  • focus at object pulled up to 8-15 inches
  • prefer bold colours
  • prefer faces as visual preference

Type of eye movements of newborns

  • Rapid eye movement (REM)
  • Non rapid eye movement (NREM)
    • Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS)

Hearing

  • develop during birth

Perception

  • Use their senses to learn about the world

Cognitive development

  • learn through their senses & interaction with people

Sensorimotor stage (Birth – 2 yo)

  • learn from their senses
  • show interest in light and movement
  • recognise their own name

Object permanence

  • knowledge that an object continues to exist
    • independent of our senses
  • Stage 1 – 6

Speech & language development

  • By end of 3rd month
    • start to immitate sounds
    • move eyes towards direction of sound
  • By end of 6th month
    • respond to own name
    • making sounds
    • can babble consonents
      • M, B, D
  • By end of 12 months
    • try to immitate words
      • mama,baba, uf oh
    • understands simple instructions
    • understands no
  • By end of 24 months
    • uses simple phrases
    • begin to use pronouns
      • mine
    • begin to use prepositions
      • in
      • under
    • asks questions
    • say up to 50-100 words

Cooing –> babbling –> one word sentence –> telegraphic speech

Socio-emotional development

  • Attachment
    • active, intense positive, emotional relationship that develops between a child and particular invidual that endures over time
    • innate process
    • contact comfort
  • Types of attachment
    • Secure attachment
      • does not want to separate from mother
      • happy when mother returns
    • Avoidant
      • does not seek mother
      • does no cry when leave
    • Anxious/Ambivalent
      • upset when mother leaves
      • angry when mother returns
  • Temperament
    • natural innate style of behavious of each infividual
    • 9 traits
      • update later

Child development

Growth

  • Increase in size
  • structural changes
  • measurement
    • height
    • weight
    • bone age

Development

  • Increase in complexity
    • Structure & function
  • Intellect personality

Homosapiens & it’s outstanding features

  • Upright postrues
  • Finely adjustable visual equipment & Uniquely flexile digits
  • Spoken language
  • Evolution of complex social culture

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