Pathology of peripheral neuropathies

Tests for peripheral neuropathy Electromyography measures electrical impulses in muscle at rest & when contracting Differentiates between muscle and nerve disorders Nerve conduction velocity assess the degree of damage in the larger nerve fibres due to myelin loss Slow transmission –> myelin damage    Decrease strength of impulse -> axonal degeneration Read more…

Seronegative spondylitis

General features -ve for Rheumatoid Factor Genetic predispostion Initiated by environmental factors eg. infectious trigger Manifestations are immune mediated T cell response Spondyloarthropaties Definition A group of inflammatory arthropathies that share distinctive clinical, radiological and genetic features The 4 main diseases Ankylosing Spondylitis Reiter’s disease (reactive arthritis) Psoriatic arthritis Enteropathic Read more…

Dementia

Dementia Definition Diminution of cognition in clear consciousness Decrement of 2 or more intellectual functions Impairment of short and long term memory Changes of Dementia involve Cognition Memory Language Visuospatial Behavioural disturbance involve Restlessness Wandering Violence Delusions Social & Sexual disinhibition Types of dementia Alzheimer’s Global Vascular Pick’s disease Frontal Read more…

Neoplastic lesions of the brain

*Read from printed notes – Ian Brown _____________________________________________________________________ Notes from emedicine.com Background Brain tumors may originate from neural elements within the brain, or they may represent spread of distant cancers. Primary brain tumors arise from CNS tissue account for roughly half of all cases of intracranial neoplasms The remainder of Read more…

Coma & Brain stem death

Coma Definition A state of prolonged unconsciousness characterized by loss of reaction to external stimuli or, a state of unrousable unresponsiveness. Differentiate from: Stupor Unconscious but can be aroused with repeated stimuli. Delirium Confused state often with restlessness and hallucinations. ‘Locked-in’ syndrome actually conscious but unable to speak or move Read more…

Epilepsy

Definitions: Seizures occasional, sudden, rapid and local discharges of gray matter Epilepsy brain disorder characterised by periodic, unpredictable occurrence of seizures Seizures Transient changes of behaviour due to disordered, synchronous  and rhythmic firing at high frequency of groups of neurons from the cerebral cortex When seizure activity is initiated at Read more…

Upper motor neuron & Lower motor neuron lesions

Definitions Upper motor neuron Corticospinal neuron Corticonuclear neuron Cerebral cortex (pyramidal tract) –> Precentral gyrus (motor strip) → internal capsule (posterior limb) → brainstem → spinal cord 85% cross to opposite side Upper motor neuron lesions Interruption of the corticospinal and corticonuclear tract along its course _____________________________________________________________________ Lower motor neuron Read more…

Cerebrovascular disorders

Cerebrovascular accident (Stroke) Described by the side of the brain affected not the side of the clinical signs Eg. left cerebral infarct leads to right hemiparesis and dysphasia Types of stroke Infarction embolic hypotensive Haemorrhage aneurysm _____________________________________________________________________ Revision of basic anatomy of the brain Vascular supply of the brain Anterior Read more…

Inflammatory Arthritis

4 topics: General arthritis def cause types Osteoarthritis ethiopathology morphology gross microscopic clinical/radiological features management Rheumatoid arthritis same as above Septic arthritis ethiopathogenesis investigations treatment General arthritis Arthritis: Inflammation of one of more joints. (a group of conditions involving damage to the joints of the body) There are over 100 Read more…